Catheters and Specula
Bozzini connected to the container speculas of different sizes for examination of the ear, urethra, femal bladder and vagina.
Speculas are also known since anticity. First catheters for examination of the bladder have been used about 3000 before Christ in Egypt and were made of bronze. First anatomical correctly formed catheters are shown by Erastios 320 before Christ. Also dilators for widenig of natural cavities origin from this centuries.
Quality of metal material and production processes improved constantly, espacially stimulated by armourers. The Arabic surgeon Abu-I-Qasim (Abucasis) developed about 1000 past Christ a lot of surgical instruments and described their use in the medical publication "Kitab-al-tasif". Some of them were used for examination of the ear and to remove foreign particels out of the esophagus.