Sonntag, 31. August 2014

Philipp Bozzini (1773 - 1809) Summary

Philipp Bozzini was born 1773 in Mainz and started his medical studies there, later he changend to the university of Jena to complete his experience. Bozzini was granted the title of doctor of medicine, which allowed him to establish in Mainz as physician, later in Frankfurt/Main. Beside his studies in medicine he had extraordinary knowledge in mathematic, philosophy and chemistry. He had also exeptional talent as drawer and he was a true visionary. These characteristics enabled him to construct, realize and explain his invention: The Lichtleiter.

The "Lichtleiter" consisted of the materials glass and metal. For manufacturing knowledge of physik and mechanics was necessary. Bozzini needed the assistance of metal workers and opticans. For lightening a candle was used.

State of the art

The items which were used for the "Lichtleiter" like a lamp case, magnifying glasses, optical lenses, conical mirror, metal specula and surgical instruments were available. Only candles were manufactured for a reasonable price since the year 1800, before they were luxury goods. The workmanship of metal workers were on a high level, which is confirmed by engineers of Mercedes who produced a copy of the Lichtleiter using Bozzinis original drawings. The candlelight and the optical lenses were of poor quality as they limited the field of view to a small diameter , but Bozzini made the best of what was available.


The technology, has been used by Bozzini for constructing the endoscope, has been known at least since 1710. The German Johann Michael Conradi published a text book on the evolution of optics. ("Der dreyfach geartete Sehstrahl"). Conradi discribed all technologies which were important for endoscope production and lined out all the parts, Bozzini used for his "Lichtleiter".


The milestone invention of Bozzini was, that for the first time in history he combined all available technologies into a unique, useable product. The breakthrough development was, to seperate the speculum into two channels, one for illumination by a candle and one for reflecting images back to the eye of the viewer. No one has done so before.

Treatment and vision

Bozzini had a wide range of use in his mind. He discribed his hope as follows:
"Extirpation of carcinoma of the uterus, deformities of the uterine office, the vagina, polyps and ulcera of the same and of the rectum. Also the bladder stone can be operated by sight."                   The aim of his invention was to avoid needless patient injuries and questionable examination methods.Also he wanted to gain knowledge about disease pathologies. His invention leaded at the end to new ways of diagnosis and treatmant of diseases. Bozzini inspired generations of surgeons and engineers to continue endoscopic evolution. Therefore he is the true originer of Endoscopy.

Will be continued

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