Montag, 24. November 2014

Endoscopic Illumination

The Use of the light Bulb in Endoscopy

The invention of the light bulb by Thomas Alva Edison, documented by US Patent 223898 from 27.1.1980 (high-restitance bulb and the lamp socle) was the key technology for a further milestone in Endoscopy. Edison has not only invented the light bulb but also brought progress to the distribution of electricity associated with a number of household appliances. The endoscopic breakthrough was caused by miniaturization of the light bulb, called Mignon Lamp.

Prototypes of light bulbs have been offered by several inventors before Thomas A. Edison  like the Scots Man James Brown Lindsey in 1835, Fredrick Moleynes 1841 who got a patent and also John Wellington Starr, Robert Grove and Joseph Swan, but none of them offered a fully developed solution

 Edison was looking for a solution for the perfect filament that burns long enough. He first used charred bamboo threads with which the bulbs burned almost two days. Even Edison failed first with his attempts to improve the known incandescent with platin glew wire. However in 1879 he had his first succes in bulbs with a high-resistance carbon filament and perfect vacuum seal, with whom he reached about 40 hours of light. The breakthrough is usually associated with a test and a demonstration on October 21st 1879. This date is therefore the invention date of practical incandescent lamp. Edison offered the best practical light bulb and is therefore the one who created a milestone in electricity and lightening as true inventor.

Invention step for Endoscopy  

The use of Mignon lamp in Endoscopy was almost simultaneously operated by the urologist Max Nitze and the renowed Viennese instrument manufacturer Joseph Leiter (Patent DPR. 41073 from 1887). Both developments were presented simultaneously on the Surgeons Congress in Berlin 1887. The Leiter Cystoscope, which was developed together with Surgeon Dittel was two thirds cheaper than the Nitze Cystoscope and better to handle as the Vienna regimental surgeon Dr. Lewandowski confirmed.

Dr. Max Nitze and the instrument maker Josef Leiter had entered into an agreement in 1878 in which they agreed to cooperate in the field of endoscopy. Josef Leiter took over the producers risk´s and assured Dr. Max Nitze as inventor to charge with 5.000 Forint. The platin glew wire endoscope from 1877 is patented and received the patent number DRP 6853 dated from 2.07.1879. Later on Max Nitze and Josef Leiter quarreld over a long periode and both were looking for new partners. Both patents leaded to an extraordinary milestone in endoscopy and caused modern endoscopy.


It is out of question that as well Dr. Max Nitze as well Josef Leiter had access to the knowledge of Davy, John Fisher, Julius Bruck, Grünfeld and Trouvé, never the less the best practicable Cystoscopes have been presented by Dr. Max Nitze and Josef Leiter related to technical performance                                           

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